How to Install Magento on Linode?

10 minutes read

To install Magento on Linode, follow the steps mentioned below:

  1. Provision a Linode: Log in to your Linode account and create a new Linode instance. Choose your preferred plan and data center, then proceed to provision the Linode.
  2. Deploy the Linode: Once the Linode is provisioned, deploy it by starting the instance.
  3. Access Linode via SSH: Connect to your Linode using SSH. On a Linux/Mac system, open the terminal and use the SSH command followed by the Linode's IP address. For example: ssh root@. Enter the password when prompted.
  4. Update the system: Once connected, update the system by running the following commands: apt update: Updates the package list. apt upgrade: Upgrades the installed packages.
  5. Create a new user: It is recommended to create a separate user to install and manage Magento. Use the following command to add a new user: adduser magento: Replace "magento" with your desired username. Follow the prompts to set a password and additional information.
  6. Grant sudo privileges: Provide sudo access to the new user by running the below command: usermod -aG sudo magento: This adds the user "magento" to the sudo group.
  7. Set up a firewall: Configure the firewall to allow necessary connections using the following commands: apt install ufw: Installs Uncomplicated Firewall (UFW) if not already installed. ufw allow OpenSSH: Allows SSH connections. ufw enable: Starts the firewall.
  8. Install the LEMP stack: Install the Nginx web server, MariaDB database, and PHP to set up the LEMP stack by executing these commands: apt install -y nginx: Installs Nginx. apt install -y mariadb-server: Installs MariaDB. apt install -y php-fpm php-mysql: Installs PHP and the MySQL extension.
  9. Configure Nginx: Open the Nginx configuration file by running the command nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/default. Modify the root directive to point to the directory where you want to install Magento. Save the changes and exit the editor.
  10. Install Composer: Composer is a dependency manager for PHP. Use the following commands to install Composer: curl -sS | php: Downloads the Composer installer. mv composer.phar /usr/local/bin/composer: Moves the installer and renames it.
  11. Install Magento: Change to the user created in step 5 (cd ~magento) and navigate to the web directory (cd /var/www/html). Use the composer command to install Magento: composer create-project --repository-url= magento/project-community-edition .
  12. Set file permissions: Set the appropriate file permissions by running the following commands: chown -R magento:www-data /var/www/html: Assigns ownership to the Magento files. find var generated vendor pub/static pub/media app/etc -type f -exec chmod g+w {} +: Sets file permissions. find var generated vendor pub/static pub/media app/etc -type d -exec chmod g+ws {} +: Sets directory permissions. chmod u+x bin/magento: Gives execution permission to the Magento CLI.
  13. Access Magento installation wizard: Open a web browser and access your Linode IP address. Follow the on-screen instructions to install and configure Magento.

That's it! You have successfully installed Magento on a Linode server.

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How to create a Linode instance for Magento installation?

To create a Linode instance for Magento installation, follow these steps:

  1. Sign in to your Linode account or create a new account if you don't have one.
  2. Once logged in, click on "Add a Linode" to create a new Linode instance.
  3. Select a data center location based on your target audience and server requirements.
  4. Choose a Linode plan according to your resource needs, keeping in mind the recommended system requirements for Magento.
  5. Enter a label for your Linode to easily identify it.
  6. Select a Linux distribution for your Linode, such as Ubuntu, CentOS, or Debian.
  7. Choose a disk size based on the anticipated size of your Magento installation and the amount of data you expect to store on it.
  8. Select the desired options, such as backups, block storage, and private networking.
  9. Review the settings and click "Create" to create your Linode instance.
  10. Once the Linode instance is created, you will receive the login details for accessing the Linode via SSH.
  11. Connect to your Linode using an SSH client, such as PuTTY (Windows) or Terminal (Mac/Linux).
  12. Update the system packages by running the following command:
sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade

  1. Install the necessary software dependencies for Magento, such as Apache or Nginx, MySQL or MariaDB, PHP, and other required PHP extensions. You can refer to the official Magento documentation for specific requirements.
  2. Configure the web server to point to the correct document root directory for Magento installation.
  3. Download and extract the Magento installation files to the document root directory of your web server.
  4. Set the correct file permissions and ownership for Magento files and directories. Again, you can refer to the official Magento documentation for detailed instructions.
  5. Create a MySQL database and user for Magento and grant all necessary privileges to the user.
  6. Access your domain or IP address in a web browser, and follow the Magento installation wizard to complete the setup.
  7. Once the installation is complete, make sure to secure your Magento installation by configuring HTTPS, enabling Magento's security features, and regularly applying updates and patches.

Remember to follow best practices for server security and performance optimization, such as using a firewall, implementing caching, and regularly monitoring your Linode instance.

What is SSH and how to use it for Linode?

SSH (Secure Shell) is a cryptographic network protocol that allows secure communication between two devices, such as a client and a server, over an unsecured network. It provides a secure way to log in to a remote server and execute commands.

To use SSH for Linode, follow these steps:

  1. Install an SSH client: If you are using Linux or macOS, you may already have an SSH client installed. Open the terminal and skip to step 2. If you are using Windows, you can install an SSH client like PuTTY or OpenSSH for Windows.
  2. Retrieve your Linode's IP address: Login to the Linode Manager, select the Linode Instance you want to connect to, and note down its IP address.
  3. Open the terminal or the SSH client: Open the terminal or the SSH client you installed in step 1.
  4. Connect to the Linode: Use the following command to connect to your Linode: ssh root@Replace with your Linode's IP address.
  5. Verify the authenticity of the host: Upon first connection, you may receive a prompt asking to verify the authenticity of the host. Confirm and accept the host's fingerprint.
  6. Enter your root password: You will be prompted to enter the root password for your Linode. Enter it and press enter.
  7. You are now logged in to your Linode and can execute commands or perform any administrative tasks.

It is recommended to use an SSH key pair instead of password authentication to increase security. Linode provides an easy-to-follow guide on how to add SSH keys to your Linode account and server.

What is Varnish caching and how to configure it for Magento on Linode?

Varnish caching is an open-source HTTP accelerator that helps improve the performance and scalability of websites. It stores copies of web pages in memory and serves them to visitors, reducing the load on the webserver and improving response times.

To configure Varnish caching for Magento on Linode, you can follow these steps:

  1. Install Varnish: SSH into your Linode instance and update the system packages: sudo apt update Install Varnish: sudo apt install varnish
  2. Configure Varnish for Magento: Open the Varnish configuration file: sudo nano /etc/varnish/default.vcl Replace the entire content of the file with the following Magento-specific Varnish configuration:
backend default {
    .host = "";
    .port = "8080";
    .first_byte_timeout = 600s;

sub vcl_recv {
    if (req.request == "PURGE") {
        if (!client.ip ~ purge) {
            return (synth(405, "Method not allowed"));
        return (hash);

    if (req.method != "GET" &&
        req.method != "HEAD" &&
        req.method != "PUT" &&
        req.method != "POST" &&
        req.method != "TRACE" &&
        req.method != "OPTIONS" &&
        req.method != "DELETE") {
        return (pipe);

    unset req.http.Cookie;
    return (hash);

sub vcl_backend_fetch {
    if (bereq.url ~ "^/index.php/") {
        set bereq.url = regsub(bereq.url, "^/index.php/", "/");
    if (bereq.url ~ "^/") {
        set =;

sub vcl_backend_response {
    set beresp.ttl = 24h;
    set beresp.grace = 30s;
    set beresp.keep = 12h;

sub vcl_deliver {
    if (obj.hits > 0) {
        set resp.http.X-Cache = "HIT";
    } else {
        set resp.http.X-Cache = "MISS";

  1. Configure Magento to work with Varnish: Open the Magento configuration file: sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/magento Add the following lines within the server block:
    location / {
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;

  1. Restart the services: Restart Nginx: sudo service nginx restart Restart Varnish: sudo service varnish restart

Varnish should now be successfully configured for Magento on your Linode. You can test the caching by accessing your Magento site and checking the X-Cache header in the response using browser developer tools. If it shows "HIT," it means the page was served from Varnish cache.

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