Calculating returns on investments involves determining the profit or loss generated from an investment over a specific period of time. To calculate returns, you first need to subtract the initial investment amount from the final value of the investment. The resulting amount is the profit or loss generated.

To calculate the percentage return on investment, divide the profit or loss by the initial investment amount, then multiply by 100 to get the percentage. This percentage can be used to compare the returns on different investments and determine the overall performance of your investment portfolio.

It is important to consider factors such as fees, taxes, and inflation when calculating returns on investments, as these can impact the overall profitability of an investment. Additionally, it is recommended to regularly review and track your investment returns to make informed decisions about your investment strategy.

## How to calculate returns on investments in ETFs?

To calculate returns on investments in ETFs, you can follow these steps:

- Start by determining the initial investment amount and the ending investment value. The initial investment amount is the total amount of money you initially invested in the ETF, while the ending investment value is the total value of your investment at the end of the investment period.
- Subtract the initial investment amount from the ending investment value to calculate the total gain or loss on your investment.
- Divide the total gain or loss by the initial investment amount to calculate the return on investment. This will give you the percentage return on your investment in the ETF.
- To calculate the annualized return, you can use the following formula:

Annualized Return = ((1 + Total Return) ^ (1 / Number of Years)) - 1

- Once you have calculated the returns, you can compare them to the performance of the benchmark index or other investments to evaluate the performance of the ETF.

## How to calculate risk-adjusted returns on investments?

One common method for calculating risk-adjusted returns is to use the Sharpe ratio. The Sharpe ratio measures the excess return of an investment over the risk-free rate, relative to its standard deviation of returns.

To calculate the Sharpe ratio, follow these steps:

- Calculate the average return of the investment over a specific time period.
- Determine the risk-free rate of return, which is typically the yield of a government bond.
- Calculate the annualized standard deviation of the investment's returns, which measures the volatility of the investment.
- Subtract the risk-free rate from the average return of the investment to get the excess return.
- Divide the excess return by the standard deviation of the investment's returns to get the Sharpe ratio.

The formula for the Sharpe ratio is: Sharpe Ratio = (Average Return - Risk-Free Rate) / Standard Deviation

A higher Sharpe ratio indicates better risk-adjusted returns, as it shows that the investment is providing a higher return for the amount of risk taken. However, it is important to consider other factors such as the investment's correlation with other assets and the investment's specific risk characteristics when evaluating risk-adjusted returns.

## How to calculate returns on investments in commodities?

To calculate returns on investments in commodities, you can use the following formula:

Return on Investment (%) = (Current Price - Purchase Price + Income) / Purchase Price * 100

Here is how to calculate returns on investments in commodities step-by-step:

- Determine the purchase price of the commodity you have invested in.
- Determine the current price of the commodity.
- Calculate any income or dividends received from the investment.
**Plug these values into the formula**: (Current Price - Purchase Price + Income) / Purchase Price * 100.- The result will give you the return on investment in percentage terms.

For example, if you purchased a commodity for $1,000, the current price is $1,200, and you have received $100 in income, the calculation would be as follows:

Return on Investment (%) = ($1,200 - $1,000 + $100) / $1,000 * 100 Return on Investment (%) = $300 / $1,000 * 100 Return on Investment (%) = 30%

This means that your investment in commodities has provided a return of 30%.

## What is the formula to calculate returns on investments?

The formula to calculate returns on investments is:

Return on Investment (ROI) = (Net Profit / Cost of Investment) x 100%

Where:

- Net Profit = Revenue - Cost
- Cost of Investment = Total cost of the investment (such as purchase price, fees, and expenses)

## What is the average annual return on investments?

The average annual return on investments can vary significantly depending on the type of investment, market conditions, and economic factors. Historically, the average annual return on investments in the stock market has been around 7-10%, while bonds and other fixed income securities may offer lower returns, typically in the range of 2-5%. Real estate investments can also provide an average annual return of around 5-7%.

It's important to note that these averages are not guaranteed, and investment returns can fluctuate from year to year. It's always advisable to diversify your investment portfolio and consult with a financial advisor to develop a suitable investment strategy based on your individual financial goals and risk tolerance.

## What is the difference between simple and compound returns on investments?

Simple returns on investments are calculated by taking the difference between the final value of an investment and the initial value, and then dividing by the initial value. This calculation does not take into account any additional earnings or income generated by the investment over time.

Compound returns, on the other hand, take into account the reinvestment of any earnings or income generated by the investment over time. This means that compound returns reflect the effect of compounded interest or returns on the overall growth of the investment.

In essence, simple returns only consider the initial and final values of an investment, while compound returns factor in the additional income or earnings generated by the investment over time. Compound returns are generally considered a more accurate measure of the true return on an investment over the long term.